Sulfuric Acid:
Sulfuric acid is a strong mineral acid with a wide variety of applications. Sulfuric acid is produced (mainly) two ways: Virgin material (from elemental sulfur, acid sludge, gas desulfurization) and as a smelter by-product.

Market Dynamics:
Approximately 60% of the global sulfuric acid is used in the fertilizer industry: sulfuric is reacted with phosphate rock to make phosphoric acid and phosphate compounds... nutrients use by plants, but also in BioPharma cell culture. Thus fluctuations in the fertilizer and corn markets can cause market tightness in sulfuric and phosphate compounds.

Up Stream Materials/Building Blocks:

Crude Oil


Smelter Acid (by product primarily from copper smelting)



Down Stream Materials Consuming Sulfuric Acid:

Sulfate Compounds/Salts

Phosphoric Acid (60%)

Phosphate Compounds/Salts

Crude Oil Refining

Drain Cleaners


Lead-Acid Batteries

Waste water treatment